Teaching Music through Technology
Experiencing Music Technology-4th Edition
Print Book and E-book Versions (© 2023)

Preface (see selected portions)

Viewport I: Musicians and Their Use of Technology

  • Overview
  • Music Technology in Practice: College Students at Work in a Recording Session
  • Music Technology in Practice: College Students Performing a “Cover” — Rob Dunn and Brittany May
  • Project Suggestions for Viewport I

Module 1: People and Music: Technology’s Importance in Changing Times

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Musicians and Technology
  • The Importance of Human Creation
  • Changing Patterns of Music Curricula in Higher Education
  • Technology Adoption and Change

Module 2: People Making Technology: The Dance of Music and Technology 

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Ballet of Music and Technology
  • Five Periods of Music and Technology
    • The Mechanical Age: 1600s to Mid-1800s
    • Powered by Electricity: Mid-1800s to Early 1900s
    • Vacuum Tubes: Early to Mid-1900s
    • Transistors and Miniaturization: 1950s to 1970s
    • Personal Computers: Late 1970s to 2000s
  • Back to the Future: Key Technologies of the Present
  • Webport I: Module 2 (e-book only)

Module 3: People Competencies for Music Technology 

  • Why Study This Module?
  • People, Procedures, Data, Software, and Hardware
  • Core Competencies and Solving Problems
  • Webport I: Module 3 (e-book only)

Module 4: Getting Help 

  • Why Study this Module?
  • Online Support
  • People with Technical Knowledge and Skills
  • Printed Materials
  • Professional Associations
  • Professional Conferences
  • Webport I Resources
  • Webport I: Module 4 (e-book only)

Module 5: Finding Your Experience Level

  • Why Study this Module?
  • Growing Levels of Experience 
  • Considerations for Platform and Operating Systems 
  • Choosing Hardware
  • Choosing Software 

Project Details for Viewport I

Viewport II: Platforms, Operating Systems, and Internet Concepts for Musicians

  • Overview
  • Music Technology in Practice: Composer Working with Score —Frank Ticheli
  • Project Suggestions for Viewport II

Module 6: Operating Systems, Digital Work Habits, Copyright, and Internet Software

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Devices and Their Operating Systems
    • Keeping Current
    • Basic Functions
    • Drives
    • Files and Folders (e-book only)
    • Connecting Hardware and Internet Connections
    • Look and Feel of Devices 
  • Digital Work Habits
    • Naming and Saving on All Devices
    • Viruses, Malware and Device Security
    • Choosing and Managing Passwords (e-book only)
    • Backing Up (e-book only)
  • Complexities of Copyright
    • Length of Copyright
    • Notion of “Covers”
    • Performance Rights
    • Streaming Services
    • Fair Use
    • Future of Copyright
  • Internet-Based Software for Personal and Professional Development
    • Service and Hosting (e-book only)
    • Web Browsers (e-book only)
    • Email (e-book only)
    • File Sharing  (e-book only)
    • Digital Audio Services: Sharing, Streaming, and Purchasing
    • Developing a Personal Learning Network (PLN) (e-book only)
  • Webport II: Module 6 (e-book only)

Module 7: Concepts of Computers, Networking, and the Internet

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Analog to Digital: Computers and the Analog World
    • Counting and Thinking with 1 and 0
    • Computer Bits and Bytes
    • Serial and Parallel: Computers and Their Peripherals
  • Network Protocols: Communicating Among Computer Devices
    • Internet’s Primary Protocol: TCP/IP
    • Domain Names and IP Addresses
    • Sorting Out Domain Names
    • Email Internet Protocols: POP, IMAP, and SMTP (e-book only)
  • The World Wide Web: URL, HTTP, HTML, and More
    • Web Internet Addresses and Protocols: URLs and HTTP
    • Constructing Web Documents: HTML
    • Web 2.0: HTML5, CSS, XML and More  (e-book only)
  • File Formats: Sharing Files
    • Packaging and Compressing Sets of Files: ZIP, TAR, Z, DMG, and EXE
    • Text Documents: ASCII, RTF, DOC, PAGES, ODT, and PDF
    • Music and Audio: WAV, AIF, MIDI and More
    • Graphics and Video
  • Safe Computing: Backup and the Cloud
    • Clone Backup
    • Incremental Backup
    • Synchronized Backup
    • What Backup or Backups to Use?
  • Webport II: Module 7 (e-book only)

Module 8: EMT Workstation Designs: Internals and Connectivity

  • Why Study This Module?
  • The Five Components of a Computer System
  • The Internal Process of Computer Devices
    • CPU, GPU, and the Clock
    • Memory: RAM and ROM
    • Internal Connectivity: SATA and PCIe
    • Audio Codecs
    • Internal Storage: HDD and SSD
  • Chromebook and Mobile Internals
    • Chromebooks
    • Mobile Devices
  • Wired Connectivity 
    • The Wires: USB and Thunderbolt
    • The Protocols: USB and Thunderbolt
    • Applying USB and Thunderbolt to Desktop and Mobile Devices
  • Wired Internet: Ethernet, Fiber, and More
    • Ethernet Internet
    • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and Cable Internet (ebook only)
    • Fiber Internet
    • Applications for Wired Internet
  • Wireless Connectivity 
    • Wireless: NFC and Bluetooth
    •  Wireless: Wi-Fi and Cellular
  • Takeaways
  • Webport II: Module 8 (e-book only)

Module 9: EMT Workstation Designs: Internals and Connectivity

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Input Devices
    • Keyboards
    • Mouse Devices
    • Touch Pads and Screens
    • Pencils and Styluses
    • Virtual Assistants
  • Output Devices
    • External Storage: HDD and SSD, Flash and SD, CD and DVD
    • Video: VGA, HDMI, DVI, Thunderbolt and More
    • Audio Output
  • Internet Hardware
  • EMT-1 Applications Wrap Up
    • The Desktop Workstation
    • The Mobile Workstation
  • Webport II: Module 9  (e-book only)

Project Details for Viewport II

Viewport III: Analog and Digital Audio Basics

  • Big Picture: Digital Music Production and Live Performance
  • Overview
  • :Music Technology in Practice: Musicians and Music Production—Henry Panion and Ian Keel
  • Suggested Projects for Viewport III

Module 10: Concepts of Acoustics, Audiology, and Digital Audio

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Acoustical and Perceptual Dimensions of Sound
    • Vibrations, Frequency, and Amplitude
    • Envelopes
    •  Harmonic Spectrum
    • Summary of the Acoustic Properties of Sound 
  • Audiology and the Human Ear
    • Components of the Human Ear
    • Protecting Ears of Musicians

  • Digital Audio: Analog to Digital and Back

    • Sampling Rates and Quantizing
    • Optimizing the Quality of Digital Audio
  • Formats and Compression for Storing Digital Audio Files
    • Sound Compression
    • Lossy Audio: Increasing Compression While Fooling the Ear
    • Streaming Audio Files for the Internet
  • Music Synthesis Techniques
    • Analog Synthesis: Additive, Subtractive, and Distortive
    • Physical Modeling
    • Digital Wave Synthesis
    • Granular Synthesis

Webport III: Module 10 (ebook only)

Module 11: Building a Basic Analog and Digital Music Studio 

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Introducing EMT-2 and EMT-3 Music Studio Models
    • Sorting Out Audio Plugs and Ports
  • Analog Audio Studio with EMT-2 
    • Simple Analog and USB Audio Interfaces
    • Connecting to the Outside World: Input and Output
    • The Role of a Mixer
    • Microphones
    • EMT-2 Mobile Considerations
    • Web Audio and Web MIDI
  • Digital Audio Studio with EMT-3
    • Features of Digital Audio Interfaces
    • Integrating a USB Audio Interface into the EMT-3 Design
    • Sound Drivers and Latency: Why is My Computer Behind the Beat?
    • EMT-3 Mobile and Chromebook Considerations
  • Storage and Sharing Digital Audio Work
    • Digital Music Players and Smartphones
    • CD/DVD-R Drives
    • Flash Memory and SD Cards
    • Cloud-based Storage
  • Webport III: Module 11 (e-book only)

Module 12: Wave Editing and Basic-Level DAW Software

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Preliminaries
    • Understanding Mono, Stereo, Channel and Track
    • Wave Editors vs. Basic-Level Digital Audio Workstations
    • Installation, Space Use, and Plug-ins
    • Importing Pre-Existing Audio
    • Recording Live Audio and Auditing Playback
    • Choosing the Right Platform
  • Exemplar Software: Wave Editors
    • Audacity (macOS/Windows/Linux)
    • WavePad (Windows, macOS, iOS, iPadOS, Android)
    • TwistedWave (macOS, iOS, iPadOS, web-based)
  • Introduction to Audio Effects Processing
    • Critical Role of Effects
    • Families of Effects
  • Exemplar Software: Basic-Level DAWs
    • GarageBand (macOS)
    • Mixcraft Recording Studio (Windows)
    • Soundation Chrome Studio (Web-Based)
    • Audio Evolution Mobile (iOS, iPadOS, Android)
  • Webport III: Module 12  (e-book only) 

Module 13: Concepts of Modular Analog Synthesis and Synthesizers

  • Why Study This Module?
  • A Bit of Analog History
    • Two Pioneers:  Buchla, Moog, and Others
  • Analog Synthesizers Modules
    • Primary Components
    • Basic Modules of an Analog Synthesizer
    • Adding Elements of Control and Modulation
    • Global Controls and Effects
  • Virtual Renaissance of Analog Synthesizers
    • Minimoog Virtual Analog Synth
    • Setting a Patch for the Minimoog Synth
  • Getting Started: A Sample of Physical and Virtual Analog Synths
    • KORG littleBits Analog Synthesizer Kit
    • MonoStereo Synthesizer
    • Common Analog Synthesizer (AN Synth)
    • Eurorack: Open-Source Virtual Modular Systems and VCV Rack
  • Webport III: Module 13 (e-book only)

Project Details for Viewport III

Viewport IV: Adding MIDI to the Mix

  • Overview
  • A Potpourri of Audio and MIDI Effects
  • Music Technology in Practice: Music Technology Professor, Composer and Guitaring— V. J. Manzo
  • Suggested Projects for Viewport IV

Module 14: Concepts of MIDI

  • Why Study This Module?
  • How MIDI Works?
  • Understanding MIDI Performance Codes
    • MIDI Device Configurations
    • Channel Messages
    • Defining Channels for MIDI Traffic Flow
    • System Messages
  • General MIDI
    • General MIDI Instrument Groups
    • MIDI 2.0 Specifications
    •  Web MIDI
  • Mapping MIDI Codes: Hardware Meets Software
  • MIDI Connectivity and Networking
    • The Original MIDI Connectivity
    • Virtual Wired Solutions: USB and More
    • Virtual Wireless Solutions: Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and More
    • Inter-App Solutions: IAC, AU, VST and Mobile Alternatives
  • Storing and Exchanging MIDI Files 
  • Managing MIDI and Audio Resources
    • Apple macOS Resources
    • Microsoft Windows and Other Resources
  • MIDI and Audio Timing: SMPTE, MIDI Time Codes, ADAT, and Word Clock
    • Who’s Conducting This Group?
    • Keeping the FSK Tape Time and SMPTE Time
    • Keeping the MIDI Time: MIDI Time Messages
    • ADAT and Word Clock Time
    • Experiencing MIDI Software and Hardware
  • Webport IV: Module 14 (e-book only)

Module 15:  MIDI Editing and Basic-Level DAW Software

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Preliminaries
    • MIDI Versus Digital Audio
    • MIDI Channels and Timbre Numbers—Getting Connected
  • Exemplar Software: Basic Level DAWs and MIDI 
    • GarageBand (macOS)
    • Mixcraft Recording Studio (Windows)
    • Studio One Artist (macOS, Windows)
    • Soundtrap (Web-Based)
    • Audio Evolution Mobile (Android, iOS, iPadOS)
    • GarageBand (iPadOS)
  • Specialized Software for Mobile Platforms
    • DAW: Korg Gadget 2
    • DAW: NanoStudio 2
    • Software Synthesizer: Audio Kit Synth One (iOS, iPadOS
    • Beatbox/Drum Machine: DM1-The Drum Machine (iOS, iPadOS, macOS)
    • Workflow Utilities: Audiobus and AUM-Audio Mixer
  • Mixing and Mastering with Basic-Level DAWs
    • File Formats and Distribution
    • Mixing and Mastering Capabilities for DAWs at All Levels
    • Mixing and Mastering: Are They the Same?
    • Personal Choices with Mixing and Mastering: A Few Hints
  • Webport IV: Module 15 (e-book only)

Module 16: MIDI Hardware: Interfaces and a Cornucopia of Controllers

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Overview of MIDI Hardware
    • MIDI Hardware Basics
    • Traditional MIDI Networks
    • MIDI THRUs, Mergers, and Patchbays
  • EMT-4 Music Studio with MIDI
    • The Mobile Version of EMT-4
    • Keyboard Controllers
    • Pad Controllers
  • EMT-5 Enhanced MIDI Music Studio
  • Controller Cornucopia: Drums, Guitars, Winds, and More
    • Drum Controllers
    • Guitar and String Controllers
    • Voice Controllers
    • Wind Controllers
  • Mixer Control Surfaces: Hardware for the Software DAWs 
    • Hardware Mixer Controllers
    • Mapping the Hardware to DAW Software
    • Automated Mixing
    • Tablets and Smartphones as Mixer Control Surfaces
  • Creating New Modes of Expression
    • Pioneers Experimenting
    • Sweat, Movement, and Biofeedback Controllers
    • Experimentation with MIDI and Music Learning
    • Hardware Tools for the DIY Experimenter
  • Subjective Factors for MIDI Controllers
  • Webport IV: Module 16  (e-book only)

Project Details for Viewport IV

Viewport V: More Advanced Digital Audio Workstations

  • Overview
  • Music Technology in Practice: Film and TV Composer, Arranger and Producer—Steve Morrell 
  • Suggested Projects for Viewport V

Module 17: Multichannel Audio Hardware and Concepts

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Superheroes: The DSP Algorithms, Chips, and Plug-ins
  • Audio Mixer Concepts and Design
    • Routing and Channels
    • Summing, Buses, and Mixes
    • Processing: Effects, Dynamic Processors, and More
    •  Effect Mixes: Aux and Insert Buses
    • More on Mixes for Groups and Effects
  • The EMT Digital Audio Workstation Goes Multichannel
    • Inputs for Recording or Performing
    • Outputs for Recording, Monitor-Studio Audio, and Stage Audio
  • EMT-6A: Analog Mixers
    • Hands-on with an Analog Mixer
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of an Analog Mixer Solution
  • EMT-6B: Digital Mixers
    • Hands-on with a Digital Mixer
    • Hands-on with an Expanded Feature Digital Mixer
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of a Digital Mixer Solution
  • EMT-6C: Virtual or In-the-Box Mixers
    • Hardware Mixer Control Surfaces
    • Hands-on with a Multichannel Audio/MIDI Interface
    • Hands-on with a Multichannel Mixer Controller
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of a Virtual, In-the-Box Mixer Solution
  • Three Mixer + Hybrid Solutions Wrap Up
    • Just Getting Started
    • Ready to Move Up
    • A Good Fit for ITB Mixing?
  • Mixers for Special Recording Needs
    • Wireless Multichannel Portable Mixers
    • Podcasting
    • Small Mixers for Small Jobs
    • DJ Mixers
    • Portable Recorder/Players
  • Moving up to Surround Sound (e-book only)
  • Webport V: Module 17 (e-book only)

Module 18 Software for Advanced DAWs

  • Why Study This Module?
  • The Advanced DAW Landscape
    • Eleven Advanced DAWs
    • Notable Characteristics
    • Which Advanced DAW is Best?
  • Exemplar Software
    • Logic Pro (macOS)
    • Software Similar to Logic Pro
    • Auria Pro (iPadOS)
    • Ableton Live (macOS, Windows)
    • Software Similar to Ableton Live
  • Concluding Perspective: Advanced DAWs and Hardware
    • Mixers
    • DAWs
    • Examples of DAW/Hardware Tradeoffs
    • Audio Production Timeline
  • Webport V: Module 18  (e-book only)

Project Details for Viewport V

Viewport VI: Music Notation Production

  • Overview
  • Music Technology in Practice: Professors and Composers—Chia-ya Hsu and Jenni Brandon
  • Suggested Projects for Viewport VI

Module 19: Representing Music on the Printed or Digital Page

  • Why Study This Module?
  • How Is Symbolic Music Notation Represented in a Computer? 
    • Data Structures for Performing and Display
    • Translating Data Between Performance and Display
  • Tour of Computer Music-Coding Systems
    • Pre-1960s: Music Typography and Mechanical Coding
    • Mid-1960s to Mid-1970s: Friendlier Text-Based Music Coding
    • Late 1970s to Early 1980s: Enter the Personal Computer
    • Mid-1980s: The Democratization of Desktop Music Publishing
    • Late 1980s and 1990s: Intelligent Rule-Based Music-Coding Systems
    • 1990s: Seeking Interchangeable Notation-Coding Systems
  • Universal Solution for CMN Coding
    • Recordare's MusicXML
    • Deciphering MusicXML Tags
  • File Formats for Notation Applications
    • More on File Formats
  • Music Notation Import and Export Formats
    • Sibelius
    • Finale
    • SmartScore
  • Music Fonts for Notation 
    • Two Flavors of Music Fonts: Bitmapped and Outline
    • Standard Music Font Layout (SMuFL)
    • Potpourri of Music Fonts
  • Is WYPWYP Music Software Possible?
  • Webport VI: Module 19 (e-book only)

Module 20: Entry Techniques for Scorewriters

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Entry of Music Symbols
    • Alphanumeric Keyboards, Key Shortcuts, and Numeric Keypads
    • Mouse with Icons, Palettes, and Ribbon
    • Step-time with MIDI Keyboard and Virtual Keyboard
    • Real-Time MIDI Recording
    • Real-time Recording with Tap or Foot Pedal  (ebook only)
    • Live or Recorded Audio
    • Handwritten Notation
  • Closing Thoughts on Entry Techniques for Music Notation
  • Webport VI: Module 20 (e-book only)

Module 21: Software for Scorewriting, Scanning, and Digital Music Readers 

  • Why Study This Module
  • Scorewriting Software
    • Six Exemplar Scorewriters for Desktop Computers: Dorico, Finale, MuseScore, Noteflight Premium, Notion, and Sibelius Ultimate
    • Software Choice: Music Content Requirements
    • Basic Setup and Operation
    • Note Entry
    • Basic Editing
    • Editing Music Details
    • Playback, Printing, and Saving/Sharing
    • Specialized Features of Importance Found in Exemplars
    • Other Scorewriter Software for Desktop Computers
    • Scorewriters for Mobile Devices
    • Sibelius and Dorico (iPadOS)
    • Notion (iPadOS)
    • StaffPad (iPadOS, Windows)
  • Optical and Audio Music Scanning Software
    • Characteristics of Optical and Audio Music Scanning Software
    • SmartScore X2 (macOS, Windows)
    • Music-to-XML (macOS, Windows
    • PhotoScore Ultimate & NotateMe Ultimate 2020 (macOS, Windows)
    • ScanScore (macOS, Windows)
    • PlayScore 2 Professional (iOS, iPadOS, Android)
  • Digital Music Reader Applications
    • Characteristics of Digital Music Readers
    • forScore (iOS, iPadOS)
    • Newzik (iOS, iPadOS)
    • TomPlay (iOS, iPadOS, Android, Windows, MacOS, Web-Based
  • Webport VI: Module 21 (e-book only)

Module 22: Hardware for Music Printing, Scanning, and Mobile Music Reading

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Printers for Music Notation
    • Overview of Printer Concepts and Operations
    • The Mechanics of Inkjet and Laser Printing
    • Physical Properties in Common with Inkjet and Laser Printers
    • Printing Music Parts and Scores
    • Setting Up Music Page Sizes for Printing from a Scorewriter
    • Final Notes on Laser and Inkjet Printers for Music
  • Scanners and OMR
    • The Mechanics of a Scanner
    • Optical Music Recognition (OMR)
  • Accessories for Digital Music Reader Apps
    • Page Turners
    • Tablet Mounts
    • Pencil and Stylus
  • Webport VI: Module 22  (e-book only)

Project Details for Viewport VI

Viewport VII. Software for Music Teaching and Learning


  • Music Technology in Practice: Music Clinician and Music Educator—Barbara Freedman
  • Suggested Projects for Viewport VII

Module 23: Software and Resources for Music Teaching and Learning

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Changing Landscape of Music Pedagogy
    • Scenarios to Consider
    • Underlying Themes
    • Pedagogical Skill and Knowledge to Use Technology
  • Resources Dedicated to Music Teaching and Learning
    • Listening/Conceptual Study: Younger Learners  (e-book only)
    • Listening/Conceptual Study: More Advanced Learners (ebook only)
    • Performance: Younger Learners ((e-book only)
    • Performance: More Advanced Learners (e-book only)
    • Composition: Younger Learners  (e-book only)
    • Composition: More Advanced Learners  (e-book only)
  • Webport VII Resources (e-book only)

Module 24: Further Technology Resources for Teaching and Learning  (All of Module 24 is ebook only)

  • Why Study This Module?
  • Music-Related Website Resources
    • Interdisciplinary Resources
    • Podcasts
    • Portals of Music Teaching Resources
    • Portals for Audio/Printed Music
    • Music Education Blogs
  • General Technological Resources
    • Distance Learning and Conferencing
    • Learning Management Systems
    • Portfolio Management
    • Video Applications
    • Assessment Aids
  • Social Media and Building a Personal Learning Network (PLN)
    • Social Media in Action for Music Teaching and Learning
    • Personal Learning Networks
  • Music Production Content in Service to Music Teaching and Learning
  • Webport VII: Module 24

Project Details for Viewport VII


  • A. EMT Workstation Equipment Codes
  • B. Selected Readings
  • C. EMT Competency Checklist
  • Indexes


New Resources & Events
  1. See the new section under "Music Tech Resources" tab dedicated to Generative AI & Music.
  2. Checkout the videos of our Oxford University Press Webinar and view the video of our 2022 ISME Conference presentation on the new 4th Edition of our textbook .
  3. Handouts to check out include (on Safari, click on the square icon with the small ink bottle to see the full PDFs): 
  Website Copyright © Peter R Webster & David B Williams.  All Rights Reserved. 
Site based on Joomla 5! used under the GNU General Public License.